From birth to three years old, a toddler’s brain forms faster than at any other time in their lifespan. During this time babies and toddlers will have developed 1000 trillion brain connections; that’s twice as many as adults.
Babies and toddlers seem to be bottomless pits of energy, keeping parents all over running and awake.
It may come as a surprise that two-year-olds use 60% of all of that energy in their brains.
At the age of two, your toddler will begin showing signs of independence and eagerness to learn more. At this time, they are speaking sentences, forming opinions, and beginning to have longer attention spans.
Toddlers are fascinating; their ability to adapt, learn, grow, and speak at an accelerated rate is an opportune time to establish fundamental skills.
Prime skills to teach at two years old include; language, letter identification, letter sounds, social-emotional skills, and number identification. What skills can a 2-year-old learn? Is it too early to teach early literacy skills?
Can a 2-year-old read and write? Early literacy happens in key stages. Yes, a 2-year-old can read and write; however, it is not the norm. Some children learn to read and write at 4 or 5 years old, while most get the hang of it by 6 or 7 years old. Many other skills are needed before reading and writing can be achieved.
Pre-writing and reading skills are fundamental skills that a child must master before they can read and write successfully. There are various ways to encourage early literacy growth and independence at two years old.
By building a literacy foundation for your little one, you will be able to instill literacy confidence and nurture a positive learning experience.
What should my 2-year-old be doing? What should my 2-year-old know? How can I support my 2-year-old in their reading journey?
Let’s dive in and discover how you can best support your little one’s early literacy adventure.
Reading at Age 2 – What To Expect
Early language and literacy skills are learned and taught best through everyday moments together, like reading books, talking, asking and answering a lot of questions, and even playing.
It’s incredibly important to remember that all children learn at their own pace. At the age of 2, your little one will be beaming with curiosity.
Early literacy skills are their first step into exploring their curiosity at a more academic level. At this age, expect a lot of questions about books.
They will begin recognizing words by pictures. They may also memorize some of their favorite books, songs, or poems.
Normal Reading Skills at Age 2
At age 2 children begin to recognize letters in the alphabet and start to sing the “ABCs.”
When looking at picture books, toddlers can identify and label familiar items in books, relating real-life with make-believe.
This newfound recognition and expression help children pick out their favorite books by their covers, recite their favorite part in a story by the pictures, or even recite a whole book.
At the age of two, children will be asking and answering questions about books. Two-year-olds love pretending to read while turning pages of their favorite books or even making up their own stories to “read.”
What Should a 2-Year-Old Be Able To Write?
Early literacy writing revolves around the development of fine motor abilities in the fingers and hands. Many children are still ambidextrous at this age and can use either hand to scribble, grasp and point.
In terms of skill level, most 2-year-olds can make a ‘v’, a circle, and vertical/horizontal lines, although still not with absolute control.
An important indicator that your child is ready to write is when their drawings go from scribbling to meaningful shapes, lines, or “pretend writing.”
What Age Should a Child Be Able To Read?
Experts say that most children will be able to read by 6 or 7 years old and some learn much earlier.
The U.S. Department of Education states that a child should be able to read by at least 8 years old or third grade because the education structure transitions “from learning to read to reading to learn.”
An early start on literacy doesn’t always mean that a child will always be ahead; literacy abilities tend to even out along the educational road.
If your child shows an eagerness or readiness to read, then jump in! When they are ready, they are ready, and it all falls into place. Positive experiences with literacy and reading will promote future success.
Is It Possible To Teach a 2-Year-Old To Read and Write?
Yes, it is possible to teach a 2-year-old to read and write. However, success depends on the developed skills and readiness of the child.
Your child must meet readiness and skill standards before being able to succeed in reading and writing.
In determining reading readiness your child should be able to:
- Follow basic instructions
- Know the names of siblings, pets, and intermediate family members
- Know the names of objects, body parts, and colors
- Have the ability to talk in 3 – 4 words sentences
- Finish sentences that end in rhymes
You mustn’t try to force reading on a child if they are not ready. If a child is put off by books or associates reading with a negative experience, the academic repercussions in their education journey will be devastating.
In determining writing readiness, your child should be able to:
- Be able to hold a pencil correctly with three finger pincer grasp
- Be able to move a pencil accurately and fluently
- Be able to accurately copy and master the following strokes: |, —, O, +, /, square, \, X, and Δ.
Handwriting is an essential and complex life skill that takes time to master. Handwriting skills develop over time and continue to grow the more we practice.
The first step to handwriting is scribbling and drawing. By making drawing and writing materials accessible, you are encouraging fine motor skills in addition to a love for drawing and writing.
What Should a 2-Year-Old Know Academically?
Toddlers absorb and take in all the information from their surroundings. All of this information is critical to their academic growth.
Two-year-olds will be learning essential skills in several milestone categories such as language, reading, drawing, coordination, and vocabulary.
Two-year-olds should be able to:
- Say at least two words together like “more milk”
- Points to things when asked ” Where is the _____?”
- Identify at least two body parts when asked “Where is ________? Or “show me______”
- Follow simple instructions
- Knows the names of parents, siblings, or pets
- Start sorting or identifying shapes and colors
- Complete sentences or rhymes in familiar books or tv shows
- Play simple make-believe games
- Repeat words that they overhear
- Look at pictures and name familiar items or objects
- Scribble and hold crayon or pencil independently
How Many Words Should a 2-Year-Old Know?
A 2-year-old should be saying at least 50 to 1,000 words. Many children at this age are starting to string together 2 – 3 word sentences.
Every child learns at a different pace, and it is important to remember that adding pressure to a child to talk, read, or write will only prevent them from doing so.
The average for how many words a 2-year-old should know is 50 words and the average is 250 words.
Should My 2-Year-Old Know the Alphabet?
By age two, children start to recognize some letters in the alphabet. They also begin to recite the “ABC” song or sing along.
Should a 2-Year-Old Be Able to Write Their Name?
Some children will be able to write their name at 2 or 3 years old; however, this is rare. Many children do not learn how to write their names until 5 years old.
By kindergarten, a rule of thumb is that a child should be able to recognize their name and be able to write their name so an adult can recognize it.
How High Should a 2-Year-Old Be Able To Count?
A 2-year-old should be able to count to two, “one, two.” Most 2 – 3-year-olds can recognize and count to 10; however, they will often mix up the order. Many 2-year-olds counting to 10 do so from rote memory rather than knowledge.
Should a 2-Year-Old Be Able To Read Numbers?
Toddlers as young as 12 months can recognize numbers; however, it will take time before they understand what each number means. Typically, age two is when they start recognizing the number and associating it with a quantity.
Should a 2-Year-Old Know Colors?
As a general rule of thumb, 18 months to 2 ½ is the opportune age for teaching and learning colors.
Eighteen months is when toddlers begin to identify colors. Two years is when toddlers begin to differentiate between colors.
Check out a full list of important 2-year-old milestones here:
Reading Milestones By Age
Literacy milestones during early childhood development vary among the ages at which they are met. Children develop skills at their own pace.
There is a large gap between a milestone and an average. If you suspect a language, speech, or motor delay that inhibits your child’s literacy growth, reach out to your primary care provider or pediatrician for an evaluation.
|Age of Child||Reading||Writing|
|Babies||– Developing language skills|
-Stares at pictures
|-Developing motor skills|
-Attends to a book
-Speaking 3 – 5 words
|-Developing motor strength|
|2||-1 to 4 word phrases|
-Shows interest in books
-Points to objects and familiar items in books
-Responds to reading aloud
-Develops interest in the alphabet
|-Working on correct pencil grasp|
-Developing fine motor skills
-Begins writing with more control to create characters like ‘v’, vertical or horizontal lines, and a circle
|3||-900 to 1,000 words|
-Speaks in simple sentences
-Has a favorite book
-Asks/ answers questions about books
-Pretends to read
-Asks for books to be read aloud
-Memorizes books or songs
|-Knows the difference between writing and drawing |
-Can copy the following strokes: |, —, O, +, /, square, \, X, and Δ
-Identifies a dominant hand
-Pretends to write or is tracing letters
|4||-1500 to 1,600 words|
-Developing more complex sentences
-Recognizing some or all of ABCs
-Joins in repetition or rhyming literacy games
-Recognizes own name
|-Understands that print has meaning|
-Develops control over grasp
-Begins drawing characters with meaning
-Traces letters and numbers
|5||-2,100 to 2,200 Words|
-90% of grammar acquisition
-Begins to recognize and read sight words
-Identifies letters and numbers
-Beginning phonemic awareness
-Sounds out new words
|-Mastered |, —, O, +, /, square, \, X, and Δ characters|
-Identified dominant hand
-Mastered pencil grip and control
–Writes own name
-Can write letters or numbers
-Uses shapes to draw pictures
|6||-Over 2,800 words |
-Uses complex sentences
-Reads simple text with sight words and patterns
-Sounds out or blends new words
-Understands the connect between letters and sounds
-Beginning to read independently
-Understands and writes blends
-Writes CVC words with accuracy
-Understands “alphabetic principle” that letters are sounds
-Writes name accurately
-Fine motor accuracy and grip
|7||-Begins to read fluently|
-Understands letter correspondence
-Monitors own reading/self-corrects
-Reading comprehension: answers questions about the text, can tell if the text read does or does not makes sense
-Counts and blends syllables
|-Creates their own text for others to read|
-Uses correct and brave spelling to write independently
-Accurately spells 3 – 4 letter words
-Uses basic punctuation and capitalization
|8-10||-Reads with fluency |
-Identifies words by sight with less sounding out
-Reads for enjoyment
-Learns text with double meanings
-Reads both fiction and nonfiction
-Uses word identification strategies
|-Correctly spells studied words|
-Writes with written language rather than oral
-Begins to use writing process (draft, edit, revise)
-Produces and presents own work
-Attends to mechanics of writing
-Begins using literary language when writing their own work
For further or more in-depth information on literacy milestones visit Noodle.com, letstalkcambridge.org, and the Mayo Clinic.
How To Develop Superior Language Skills in Your 2-Year-Old
Toddlers develop their language skills through play, conversation, and narration. To develop superior skills in language in your 2-year-old, engage in meaningful interesting conversation often.
Reading aloud is the “single most important activity for building knowledge for their eventual success in literacy.”
By allowing your child to lead the way and by building on interests and skills through play, reading, conversation, narration, and repetition, you’re providing a firm foundation for future success.
- Get your child’s attention
- Read books together
- Sing songs, use rhyming – use repetition to encourage the identification and language-building skills
- Use comments, not questions
- Make observations
- Narrate your day
- PLAY! – make play educationally meaningful and fun!
Benefits of Reading To Toddlers
Reading to toddlers sets the foundation for literacy success. Reading together sparks a love for reading through bonding.
Hearing a story read aloud promotes cognitive growth through comprehension and prompts curiosity by asking questions.
Toddlers and babies “who are read to and talked to score higher on language skills and cognitive development.” in addition this link extends through childhood into teen years.
Reading books to toddlers expands their vocabulary and supports longer attention spans and memory-retention skills.
Reading to children is the number one way to set up a successful literacy future. Reading sparks creativity and independence while encouraging social-emotional health.
Life lessons, positive experiences, and joy stem from reading to toddlers. The benefits are endless and priceless.
How Often Should I Read To My 2-Year-Old?
Reading to your child once a day is a great goal. Set up a daily time to read, like at bedtime, to encourage a long-lasting routine. The length of time spent reading depends on the attention span of your little one.
Spending 15 – 20 minutes reading per day is recommended for 2-year-olds. If your child asks you to read more, take the time to read and encourage their love of reading.
How Do I Know If My Child Is Gifted or Just Smart?
Increased skills, good grades, and exceeding milestones are not necessarily signs that your child is gifted.
Characteristics that signal that your child may be gifted include:
- The ability to learn new skills quickly
- Can be intensely engrossed into topics of interest while surrounded by other distractions
- Keen observation, curiosity, and asking a lot of questions
- Early development of motor skills
- Ability to problem solve and think abstractedly
- Early development of vocabulary
- Shows independence and self-reliance
Gifted children have an intense curiosity, advancement, and interest in nearly everything. Smart children have higher levels of vocabulary and skills but typically speak and behave at their appropriate age levels.
Whether your child is smart, advanced, gifted, or average developmentally, spending time sharing interests, having conversations, and playing will encourage happiness and confidence in the future.
Read, play, talk and explore with your 2-year-old. The most effective way to promote literacy skills is to be an example, submerge them in language, and create a positive experience.
By associating reading and writing with happiness, you are sparking excitement for learning. That spark will catch fire and explode into a firework of literacy success.
Mom of three (including identical twin boys), wife, and owner of Parents Wonder. This is my place to share my journey as a mother and the helpful insights I learn along the way.